Area: 1.3 million sq. km. km
Population: 28 million
Currency: nuevo sol
Average temperature: +21 ° C in winter, in summer +22 ° C
General information Peru
Peru – the most mysterious country in South America. Today the country has more than 180 museums and countless archaeological parks: the famous Machu Picchu, which became one of the new wonders of the world, and the mysterious Nazca lines to nearly ruined settlements in the valleys of the Andes. Peru also known for its unique natural wealth: it has an estimated 20% of bird species and 10% of the known world of reptiles. From west to east coastal region of the Pacific Ocean Costa replaced flown slopes of the Peruvian Andes and the Amazon jungle valley (Selva). Living in Peru vary cheerful, open, through which arose all sorts of colorful festivals.
The climate is transitional from tropical in the east to the tropical mountain in the west. Average temperatures on the coast of +15 +25 ° C, in the Andes +5 +16 ° C. Annual rainfall ranges from 700 to 30000 mm. In the coastal strip of the rain sometimes falls smallest drizzle “garya. The ranges of the Andes provide a barrier to oceanic air masses, thus creating a contrast between the barren slopes of the Pacific coast and the forested slopes facing towards the Atlantic. Up to a height of 3500 m is dominated by moderate temperatures, no frost and heat, higher starting zone of Pune, which is characterized by severe exhaustion of air, low temperature (at altitudes above 4100 m do not rise above 0 ° C) and sharp daily fluctuations in temperature. The climate is tropical jungle, with heavy rainfall. The average annual temperature is +26 +28 ° C.
New sol (PEN) is equal to 100 centimes. Banknotes in circulation are 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 salt, and coins of 1, 2 and 5 of salt, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes. Virtually free circulation are also U.S. dollars.
1 PEN = 1.5 UAH
In the culture of Peru noticeable influence Creole tradition, dating back to the Spanish genetically song and dance genres. “Visiting card” of the country called the Quechua Indian folklore, because it retains the specific features inherited from the musical culture of the Incas (costumes, instruments and manner of performance of songs and dances). District selva has pronounced original cultural traditions, and folklore of primitive Indian tribes living there is demonstrated mainly during performances in front of tourists. Outside of Peru are quite well known folk artists such as Alicia Maginn, Susana Baca and Eva Ayllón. International recognition to Yma Sumac and Chabuca Granda.
Peruvian cuisine varies from region. So, on the coast more popular dishes from fish and seafood. Worth trying “SEVICHE” – pickled fish with vegetables (potatoes or corn). The main product is the mountainous region of lamb or pork. Very delicious pork under the peanut sauce, kebabs of beef heart and pachamanku “of different types of meat. To fans of the exotic should try dishes from the guinea pig, which the rulers of the Inca empire was considered a great delicacy. In Peru, grows more than 2000 species of potatoes, so the national cuisine of a great variety of potato dishes. From the modern Peruvians prefer to drink beer or grape vodka “pisco.”
Machu Picchu ( “Old Peak”) – the most famous architectural complex of Latin America. “Lost City of the Incas” stands between two magnificent peaks of Machu Picchu and Uaynana Picchu at a height of 500 m above sea level. That is what the city has provided reliable protection against the Spaniards, the Conquistadors. On the deserted town of the world learned only in 1911 by archaeologist H. Bingham. In ancient times, Machu Picchu was the center of worship of the sun, inhabited mainly female priestesses, Sun virgins. With the sun cult related to surviving temple of three windows, oriented exactly east. Next to him is located a mysterious three-sided structure – The main temple with a lot of niches and ledges. Next is carved into the rocky soil triangular platform. It is neatly dressed stone Intiuatana ( “the place to which binds the Sun”) – a monolith in the form of a giant fist, one finger which points vertically upwards.
Manu National Reserve
Manu National Park is the largest protected reserve in Peru and one of the largest reserves on the planet. It includes the valley and the Manu River basin, flows from the Cuzco and Madre de Dios. The reserve is divided into three protected areas: one is intended only for scientists, the other is available for tourist activities, and a third live in the locals. In Manu lives of more than 800 species of birds: a wild eagle, Brazilian stork, black grouse, etc., more than 200 species of mammals (black monkey, pink river seal, black caiman, lynx, jaguar, bespectacled teddy bear, anteater), as well as some 100 species of amphibians. Among 2000 plants particularly interested in the huge orchids and giant trees that reach 45 m in height and have a barrel of almost 3 meters in diameter. In 1977 UNESCO declared the Reserve Manu ecological resources of the biosphere, and in 1987 – natural heritage of mankind.
Huascaran National Park
Huascaran National Park, located on the White Cordillera, covers an area of 340000 hectares. It includes 296 lakes and 663 mountain glaciers, including the highest peaks of Huascaran, Ouanda and Alpamayo. Many tourists visit the glacier Pastoruri, Lake Lyanganuko at the foot of Mount Huascaran Globe and hot water Monterrey.
Titicaca – the world’s highest navigable lake (3810 m above sea level). The water that evaporates from the surface of the lake, moistens and warms the surrounding space, which creates conditions for the growth of atypical mountain plateau of plants (eg, eucalyptus). Animal world is extremely rich: the reeds live wild ducks in the mud, hiding the giant frog, and salmon are found in lake trout. Since ancient times the lake was attracted to its shores and islands of various groups of people who left the unique monuments of culture. The most interesting of them can be seen on the islands of the Sun and the Moon and the peninsula of Copacabana. According to legend, the Inca Empire emerged in the islands of the Sun and the Moon, where there was stuck in the land of the golden rod. On the island of the Sun is to examine the Inca staircase, Saint Springs (remedy for eternal youth), the palace and the labyrinth Pilkokaina Chinkai.
The famous Nazca desert – one of the “pearls” of Peru – lies in the south of the country in the department of Ica. Extensive plateau carved stone is only visible from the air by mysterious figures of colossal size (from 40 m to 8 km), made one continuous line. They are designed around 350-700 BC. e. but did not know why. Several hundreds of shapes – square-up images of animals, birds and people in strange garb – stretch strict rows on several kilometers. In addition to the drawings in Nazca, there is another interesting monument – necropolis Chauchilya, referring to the late period of the Nazca culture (about I in. N. E.).